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Applied Algal Biotechnology
 
 
 ◄ تصویر مولف:
 
Shanmugam Kathiresan Muthu Arumugam
شانموگام کاتیرسان
موتو آروموگام

Nagaraj Subramani

ناگاراج سوبرامانی






 
► Title→
نام کتاب
Applied Algal Biotechnology
► Author [s]→
نویسنده
Muthu Arumugam,
Shanmugam Kathiresan,
Nagaraj Subramani
► Publisher &
Year:
ناشر / سال نشر
NOVA / 2020
► Pages:
تعداد صفحات
401
► ISBN→ 1536175242, 9781536175240
► Sample pages:
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■ درباره این کتاب:

"In view of tremendous development in the area of biotechnology, algal biotechnology is a fascinating field that has attracted many researchers in the past two decades. Considering its potential and future applications for human well-being, studies related to basics and applied aspects of commercially important microalgae need to be focused. Keeping this in mind, comprehensive details starting form culture collection to metabolite production in microalgae need to be addressed and hence, our book "AppliedAlgal Biotechnology" will definitely provide valuable information and exciting results-based techniques that will easily guide young researchers, PhD scholars and also UG and PG students. In the present research scenario, every plant sciences laboratories has a separate unit for microalgal biotechnology to better understand the basic concepts that make microalgae an alternate model system that can compete with Arabidopsis thaliana. The strategies starting from isolation, identification, medium preparation, culturing condition, metabolite production, novel gene isolation and its expression pattern under the influence of different biotic and abiotic stress condition, genetic transformation in homologous/heterologous host etc., are very much essential for the fruitful execution of research""--

 ■ در این کتاب چه می‌خوانیم:
Table of contents :
1.1. Introduction 1.2. Classification of Algae Conclusion Summary Future Perspectives Acknowledgments References Chapter 2 Interactions between Algae and Bacteria: Ecology and Evolution Abstract 2.1. Introduction 2.1.1. Why Algae Bacterial Interaction Is Important 2.1.2. Photosynthesis 2.1.3. Differences between Bacteria and Cyanobacteria 2.1.4. Environment 2.1.5. Size of Algae and Bacteria 2.1.6. Reproduction 2.1.7. Bacterial Evolution and Benefitted Algae 2.2. Ecology of Algal–Bacterial Interactions 2.2.1. Mutualism 2.2.2. Commensalism 2.2.3. Parasitism 2.2.4. Lichens Symbiosis 2.2.5. Tolerance of Extreme Environments 2.3. Mechanism of Interactions in the Ecosystem 2.3.1. Energy Production 2.4. Omics Approach to Illuminate Interactions 2.5. Environmental Applications 2.5.1. Nutrient Removal and Wastewater Treatment 2.6. Bioremediation 2.7. Biotechnological Application Potential 2.8. Bio-Ethanol Production 2.9. Sustainable Aquaculture Uses 2.10. Present and Future Prospects Conclusion Acknowledgments References Chapter 3 Collection, Isolation, and Purification of Microalgae and Cyanobacteria Abstract 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Collection of Samples 3.3. Preservation of Samples 3.4. Cleaning of Diatom Frustules 3.5. Preparation of Permanent Slides 3.6. Microscopic Observation and Microphotography 3.7. Identification, Taxonomy and Documentation of Microalgae 3.8. Isolation and Purification of Microalgae 3.9. Types of Cultures 3.10. Preparation of Unialgal Cultures 3.11. Preparation of Axenic Cultures 3.12. Culture Parameters 3.13. Selection and Preparation of Media Conclusion Summary Future Perspectives Acknowledgment References Chapter 4 Photosynthesis in Algae 1. Introduction 2. Plastid Evolution and Endosymbiotic Theory 3. Pigment Compositions in Algae 4. Photosynthetic Apparatus 5. Light Trapping Mechanism and Electron Transfer 6. Structure and Activity of Rubisco 7. Carbon Fixation through CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms References Chapter 5 Secondary Metabolites of Microalgae Abstract Abbreviations 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Microalgae Secondary Metabolites 5.3. Isoprenoids 5.4. Carotenoids 5.4.1. β-Carotene 5.4.2. Astaxanthin 5.4.3. Canthaxanthin 5.4.4. Cryptoxanthin 5.4.5. Zeaxanthin 5.5. Terpenoids 5.5.1. β-Cyclocitral 5.5.2. Limonene 5.5.3. Geosmin and 2-Methylisoborneol (2-MIB) 5.5.4. Noscomin 5.5.5. Tolypodiol 5.5.6. Bacteriohopanetetrol Glucuronisides 5.6. Sterols 5.6.1. Phytosterol 5.7. Phenolic Compounds 5.7.1. Flavonoids 5.7.2. Quercetin 5.7.3. Rutin (Quercetin-3-Rhamnosyl Glucoside) 5.8. Halogenated Compounds 5.9. Fatty Acid Derivatives 5.9.1. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) 5.9.2. Arachidonic Acid (AA) 5.9.3. γ-Linolenic Acid (GLA) 5.9.4. α-Linolenic Acid (ALA) 5.9.5. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) 5.9.6. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) 5.10. Polyketides 5.11. Amino Acid-Derived Microalgae Secondary Metabolites 5.11.1. Alkaloids 5.11.2. Mycosporin-Like Amino Acids (MAAs) 5.11.3. Scytonemin 5.12. Polyamines 5.13. Toxins Conclusion References Chapter 6 Lipids Biosynthesis in Microalgae Abstract Abbreviations 6. Introduction 6.1. Microalgal Lipids 6.1.1. Polar-Structural Lipids 6.1.2. Glycolipids 6.1.3. Phospholipids 6.1.4. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) 6.2. Nonpolar-Neutral Lipids 6.2.1. Triglycerides (TAGs) 6.2.2. Free Fatty Acids (FFAs) 6.3. Lipid Accumulation 6.4. Biosynthesis of Lipids 6.4.1. Photosynthesis (Calvin Cycle) 6.4.2. Glycolysis 6.4.3. Citric Acid Cycle 6.4.4. Fatty Acid Synthesis 6.4.5. PUFA Synthesis 6.4.6. Kennedy Pathway- Triacylglycerol Formation (TAG) 6.5. Gene Expression Profile of Lipid 6.5.1. ACC (Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase) 6.5.2. ACS (Acetyl CoA Synthase) 6.5.3. Malic Enzyme (ME) 6.5.4. PFK2 (Phosphofructo-2-Kinase) 6.5.5. Glycerol Kinase (GK) 6.5.6. Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G3PDH) 6.5.7. NAD(H) Kinase 6.5.8. Ferredoxins (FDX) 6.5.9. TAG Synthesis Coding Genes 6.5.10. Growth Promoter Gene Conclusion References Chapter 7 Strategies for Lipid Enhancement in Microalgae Abstract 7.1. Algae-Based Biofuel - An Introduction 7.2. Biodiesel from Microalgae - Pros and Cons 7.3. Strategies for Lipid Enhancement in Microalgae 7.3.1. Screening and Selection of Suitable Microalgal Species 7.3.2. Strain Improvement 7.3.2.1. Traditional Approaches 7.3.2.2. Modern Approaches 7.3.2.2.1. Genetic Engineering 7.3.2.2.2. Metabolic Engineering 7.4. Manipulation of Nutrient Factors 7.4.1. Optimization of Culture Media Composition and Carbon Dioxide 7.4.2. Nitrogen Starvation 7.4.3. Phosphorous Limitation 7.4.4. Metal Stress 7.4.4.1. Iron 7.4.4.2. Sulfur 7.4.4.3. Silicon 7.4.5. Growth Hormones 7.4.6. Utilization of Low-Cost Substrates 7.4.7. Addition of Anti-Oxidants 7.5. Manipulation of Growth Parameters 7.5.1. Light Intensity 7.5.2. Temperature 7.5.3. Salinity 7.6. Maximizing Biomass Production 7.7. Bioreactor Strategies for Maximizing Lipid Production 7.7.1 Two-Stage Cultivation 7.8. Co-Cultivation of Microalgae with Other Microalgae, Yeasts, and Bacteria 7.9. Application of Process System Engineering Tools 7.10. Strategies concerned with Downstream Processing Conclusion and Future Prospectives References Chapter 8 Genetic Transformation and Metabolic Engineering in Algae Abstract 8.0. Introduction 8.1. Genetic Transformation – Is It Needed for Algae 8.2. Possibility of Gene Transformation in Algae 8.3. Genetic Transformation Methods in Algae 8.3.1. Electroporation 8.3.2. Particle Bombardment 8.3.3. Glass Bead Method 8.3.4. Cell Suspension Method 8.4. Agrobacterium-Mediated Gene Transfer 8.5. Other Successful Gene Transformation Attempts 8.6. Metabolic Pathway Engineering 8.7. Identification and Isolation of Algal Genes 8.8. Cloning and Functional Characterization of Algal Genes 8.9. Marker Gene Transformation for Antibiotic Selection 8.10. Metabolic Engineering - Carotenoid Production 8.11. Metabolic Engineering for PUFA Production 8.12. Genetic Engineering to Increase the Length and Unsaturation of Fatty Acids 8.13. Metabolic Engineering for Biodiesel Production 8.14. Problems in Genetic Transformation in Algae Conclusion References Chapter 9 Scale Up Methods Microalgae Cultures Abstract 9. Introduction 9.1. Mass Culture of Microalgae 9.1.1. Open-Culture Systems 9.1.2. Enclosed-Culture Systems 9.2. Limits to Growth in Open Raceway Ponds 9.2.1. Light 9.2.2. Photosynthesis and Photon Utilisation Efficiency 9.2.3. Temperature 9.2.3. CO2, pH and O2 9.2.4. Nutrients 9.2.5. Salinity 9.2.6. Mixing 9.2.7. Contamination and Other Limitations/Inhibitions 9.2.8. Scaling up of Microalgal Culture – Constraints and Requirements Conclusion and Future Perspective Acknowledgments References Chapter 10 Harvesting of Microalgae and Downstream Processing Abstract 10.1. Introduction 10.2. Significance of Microalgal Harvesting and Downstream Processing in Algal Biotechnology 10.3. Harvesting Techniques 10.3.1. Centrifugation 10.3.2. Membrane Filtration and Flotation 10.3.3. Sedimentation-Flocculation 10.4. Dewatering – An Essential Supplement to Harvesting 10.5. Downstream Processing 10.5.1. Total Lipid Extraction 10.5.1.1. Folch Method 10.5.1.2. Bligh and Dyer Method 10.5.1.3. Extraction of All Classes of Lipids 10.5.1.4. Ecofriendly Solvent Extraction Methods 10.5.1.5. In Situ Lipid Hydrolysis and Supercritical in Situ Transesterification (SC-IST/E) 10.6. Energy Efficient Strategies in Microalgal Biomass Harvesting 10.6.1. Algal Microfluidics 10.6.2. Scale-Up Operation and Other Challenges in Biofuel Industry 10.7. Summary and Future Perspective Acknowledgment References Chapter 11 Commercial Applications of Algae in the Field of Biotechnology Abstract 11.1. Introduction 11.2. Algae in Human and Animal Nutrition 11.3. Aquaculture Feed 11.4. Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals 11.5. Biofertilizers 11.6. Biofuel 11.7. Bioremediation 11.8. Phyconanotechnology 11.9. Genetic Engineering and GM Algae 11.9.1. Production of Recombinant Proteins in Microalgae 11.9.2. PHB Production through Genetic Manipulation Techniques Conclusion References Chapter 12 Nutraceuticals and Therapeutic Applications of Algae Abstract 12.1. Introduction 12.2. Functional Foods from Algae 12.2.1. Algae as Source of Proteins 12.2.2. Algae as Source of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) 12.2.3. Algae as a Source of Natural Food Colorants 12.2.4. Algae as a Source of Vitamins and Minerals 12.2.5. Algae as a Source of Antioxidants 12.2.6. Algae in Animal Nutrition 12.2.7. Aquaculture 12.2.8. Poultry 12.2.9. Algae in Cosmetics 12.3. Microalgae - Its Therapeutic Applications 12.3.1. Microalgal Derived Products in Cardiovascular Protection 12.3.2. Use of Microalgal Derived Omega-3 PUFAs in Neurological Applications 12.3.3. Anticancer Agents Derived from Algae and Its Use in Cancer Therapeutics 12.3.4. Anti-Inflammatory Compounds Derived from Algae and Its Use in Therapeutic Applications Conclusion References Chapter 13 Microalgae and Cyanobacteria: Role and Applications in Agriculture Abstract 13.1. Introduction 13.2. Diversity of Microalgae and Cyanobacteria in Crop Fields 13.3. Functionality Framework of Algae and Cyanobacteria 13.3.1. Plant Related Frameworks 13.3.2. Soil Related Frameworks 13.3.2.1. Soil Fertility Improvement 13.3.2.2. Uptake of N and P 13.3.2.3. Nitrogen Fixation 13.3.2.4. Contribution to Organic Matter 13.3.2.5. Soil Reclamation 13.4. Importance of Microalgal Extracellular Substances 13.4.1. Plant Growth Promoting Activity 13.4.2. Role of Extra Cellular Polysaccharides Produced 13.5. Role of Microalgae for Phytopathogen Biocontrol 13.6. Role of Cyanobacteria as Biofertilizer and Biocontrol Agents 13.7. Agricultural Wastewater Treatment by Microalgae 13.7.1. Remediation of Heavy Metal Contamination 13.7.2. Soil Aggregate Stabilization 13.8. Recent Trends in Microalgae and Cyanobacterial Bio-Inoculants 13.8.1. Microalgae/Cyanobacteria and Irrigation Water 13.9. Algae as Bioinoculants 13.9.1. Large Scale Algal Growth 13.9.2. Formulations of Algal Inoculants 13.9.3. Challenges in Commercialization Conclusion and Future Perspectives References Chapter 14 Biofuels and Hydrocarbons from Algae 14.1. Introduction 14.2. Energy Crises 14.2.1. Global Warming and Climate Change 14.3. Bioenergy 14.3.1. Fuel from Divergent Biomass 14.3.1.1. First Generation Biofuel 14.3.1.2. Second Generation Biofuel 14.3.1.3. Third Generation Biofuel 14.3.3. Biogas Production from Algal Biomass 14.3.4. Net Energy Ratio (NER) Analysis 14.4. Improvement of Microalgal Biomass 14.4.1. Culture Techniques 14.4.1.1. Photoautotrophic Cultivation 14.4.1.2. Heterotrophic Cultivation 14.4.1.3. Mixotrophic Cultivation 14.4.1.4. Photoheterotrophic Cultivation 14.5. Biodiesel Production 14.5.1. Enhancement of Lipid Productivity in Microalgae 14.5.2. Lipid Extraction 14.5.2.1. Conventional Method 14.5.2.2. One Step Transesterification 14.5.3. Hydrocarbon 14.6. Applications Conclusion References Chapter 15 Biofilm of Cyanobacteria: Environmental Applications Abstract 15.1. Introduction 15.1.1. Biofilm Producing Cyanobacteria 15.1.2. Factors Influence the Formation of Biofilm 15.1.3. Structural Diversity of Biofilm 15.2. Environmental Application of Biofilm 15.3. Role of Biofilm in Soil Conservation 15.4. Biofilm and Nutrient Availability to the Plant Community 15.5. Role of Biofilm in Biodegradation 15.6. Biofilm in Wastewater Treatment 15.7. Role of Biofilm in Biofouling and Its Environmental Consequences 15.8. Biotechnological Application 15.8.1. Biofilm for Glycotherapy 15.8.2. Glycans of Biofilm as Drug Delivery Device 15.8.3. Glycans of Biofilm as Vaccines 15.9. Future Prospective Conclusion References Chapter 16 Algae: CO2 Sequestration and Biorefinery Abstract 16.1. Introduction 16.2. CO2 Capture and Storage Methods 16.3. CO2 Mitigation Strategy 16.4. Carbon Capture by Algae 16.5. Carbon Sequestration by Algae 16.6. Limitations of Current Carbon Sequestration Technologies 16.6.1. Chemical Absorption 16.6.2. Solid Adsorbents 16.6.3. Membrane Technology 16.6.4. Cryogenic Fractionation 16.7. Recent Technologies to Enhance CO2 Solubility 16.7.1. Microbubble Technology 16.7.2. Membrane-Photobioreactor Summary and Future Perspective References Chapter 17 Phycoremediation of Wastewater Abstract 17.1. Introduction 17.2. Bioremediation by Microalgae 17.2.1. Bioremediation of Heavy Metals 17.2.2. Bioremediation of Oil 17.2.3. Bioremediation of Pesticides 17.2.4. Bioremediation of Toxins 17.2.5. Bioremediation of Radioactive Compounds 17.2.6. Methodology 17.2.7. High-Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP) 17.2.8. Cell Immobilization 17.3. Use of Strains with Special Attributes 17.4. Micro Algae at Wastewater Pond Treatment in Cold Climate Conclusion Acknowledgment References Chapter 18 Cyanobacteria Mediated Remediation of Estrone: An Emerging Pollutant Present in Aquatic Bodies Abstract 18.1. Introduction 18.2. Sources of Estrone 18.3. Estrone as Hormone and as EDC 18.4. Mechanism of Action of Estrone as EDC 18.5. Degradation of Estrone Conclusion and Future Perspective Acknowledgments References Chapter 19 Microalgal Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Current Status and Future Prospects Abstract 19.1. Introduction 19.2. Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles 19.3. Biogenic Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle 19.4. Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles 19.4.1. Anti-cancer Activity 19.4.2. Anti-diabetic Activity 19.4.3. Anti-bacterial Activity 19.4.4. Anti-fungal Activity 19.4.5. Anti-inflammatory Activity 19.4.6. Bio-imaging of Cancerous Cells 19.5. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Nano-Biofertilizer

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Applied Algal Biotechnology

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