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Introduction to Ocean Circulation and Modeling
 
 
 ◄ تصویر مولف:
 
Avijit Gangopadhyay
آویجیت گانگوپادهی











 
► Title→
نام کتاب
Introduction to Ocean Circulation and Modeling
► Author [s]→
نویسنده
 Avijit Gangopadhyay
► Publisher &
Year:
ناشر / سال نشر
CRC Press / 2022
► Pages:
تعداد صفحات
768
► ISBN→ 9783030903831, 3030903834
► Sample pages:
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► Description:
شرح

■ درباره این کتاب:

Introduction to Ocean Circulation and Modeling provide basics for physical oceanography covering ocean properties, ocean circulations and their modeling. First part of the book explains concepts of oceanic circulation, geostrophy, Ekman, Sverdrup dynamics, Stommel and Munk problems, two-layer dynamics, stratification, thermal and salt diffusion, vorticity/instability, and so forth. Second part highlights basic implementation framework for ocean models, discussion of different models, and their unique differences from the common framework with basin-scale modeling, regional modeling, and interdisciplinary modeling at different space and time scales.

Features:


Covers ocean properties, ocean circulations and their modeling.

Explains the centrality of a rotating earth and its implications for ocean and atmosphere in a simple manner.

Provides basic facts of ocean dynamics.

Illustrative diagrams for clear understanding of key concepts.

Outlines interdisciplinary and complex models for societal applications.
The book aims at Senior Undergraduate Students, Graduate Students and Researchers in Ocean Science and Engineering, Ocean Technology, Physical Oceanography, Ocean Circulation, Ocean Modeling, Dynamical Oceanography and Earth Science..
 ■ در این کتاب چه می‌خوانیم:
Table of contents :
Chapter 1: Our Home – The Earth 1.1. The Basics 1.2. The Oceans – An Introduction 1.3. Spatial and Temporal Scales 1.4. Oceans – The Regulator of Temperature 1.5. Carriers of Heat – Cyclones and Currents 1.6. Franklin to Satellites Chapter 2: Responses and Forces 2.1. Introduction 2.2. The Response Variables 2.3. The Forcing Function 2.4. Newton’s Laws 2.5. Rate of Change 2.6. Forces on Fluid 2.6.1. The pressure-gradient forces and Hydrostatic Balance 2.6.2. Viscous Force 2.6.3. The Coriolis Force 2.7. The Conservation Equations 2.7.1. The Conservation of Mass 2.7.2. Conservation of Heat and Salt 2.8. Governing Equations Chapter 3: Geostrophic Equilibrium 3.1. Introduction 3.2. The Geostrophic Balance 3.3. Dynamic Height and Geostrophic Velocity 3.3.1. Geostrophic Velocity 3.3.2. Specific Volume Anomaly 3.3.3. Velocity Across a Section 3.3.4. Absolute Velocities 3.4. Large-Scale Geostrophic Balance 3.5. Inertial Motion 3.6. Thermal Wind Chapter 4: Wind-Driven Circulation 4.1. Introduction 4.2. Wind Stress and Eddy Viscosity 4.3. The Ekman Balance 4.4. The Integrated Ekman Transport 4.4.1. Upwelling (Coastal and Equatorial) 4.5. Sverdrup Dynamics 4.6. Vorticity 4.6.1. Relative Vorticity 4.6.2. Planetary Vorticity 4.6.3. Absolute Vorticity 4.6.4. Potential Vorticity 4.7. Stommel’s Solution 4.8. Munk’s Model and Future Directions Chapter 5: The Abyssal Connection 5.1. The Basics 5.2. The Sinking Regions 5.3. The Conveyor Belt 5.4. Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) 5.4.1. Atlantic MOC (AMOC) 5.5. A Simple Model for The THC 5.6. Wind-Driven and Thermohaline Chapter 6: Time–Dependent Circulation 6.1. Time-Dependence and Waves 6.2. The Inertia-Gravity Wave Equations 6.2.1. Surface Gravity Waves 6.2.2. What Exactly Is a Wave? 6.2.3. Examples of Waves in Other Media 6.2.4. Fourier Decomposition 6.2.5. An Example of Fourier Decomposition 6.3. The Dispersion Relationship 6.4. The Dispersion Diagram 6.5. Kelvin Waves 6.6. Rossby Waves Chapter 7: The Layering of Oceans 7.1. The Idea of Layers 7.2. The 2-Layer Ocean 7.2.1. Buoyancy Frequency 7.2.1.1. Stratification and Vertical Mixing 7.2.1.2. Stratification and Horizontal Mixing 7.2.1.3. Energy Extraction from Stratification 7.2.1.4. Barrier Layer and Inversion Layer 7.3. El Ni˜no and La Ni˜na 7.3.1. A Brief History 7.3.2. The Physical Setup 7.3.3. Two-Layer Model 7.3.4. The Equatorial Jet 7.3.5. Equatorial Kelvin and Rossby Waves 7.4. The Indian Ni˜no (IOD) 7.5. Instability 7.5.1. Barotropic Instability 7.5.2. Baroclinic Instability 7.6. Examples of BT/BC Instabilities Chapter 8: Introduction to Modeling 8.1. Context of Modeling 8.1.1. What Is a Model? 8.1.2. Purpose of Modeling 8.1.3. What Do We Model? 8.1.4. How Do You Model? 8.2. General Approach to Modeling 8.2.1. Domain and Grid-resolution 8.2.2. Initial condition 8.2.3. Boundary conditions and Forcing 8.2.4. Parameters 8.3. An Early Ocean Model 8.4. Numerical Methods 8.4.1. Finite Difference 8.5. The Basic Equations 8.6. The Model Equations 8.7. The Computer Algorithm 8.8. Conclusion Chapter 9: Turbulence and Eddies 9.1. Turbulence and Eddy Viscosity 9.1.1. Turbulence 9.1.2. The Closure Problem 9.1.3. A Simple Eddy Viscosity 9.1.4. Kolmogorov Theory 9.1.5. Approaches to Closure Modeling 9.1.6. Relation to Vertical Mixing 9.2. Turbulence and Mixed Layer 9.2.1. PWP Model Chapter 10: Multiscale Ocean Models 10.1. A Brief Background 10.2. Multiscale Models 10.3. Generalized Vertical Coordinates 10.4. Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS) 10.5. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) 10.5.1. Vertical Mixing in POM 10.5.1.1. Mellor-Yamada 2.5. Closure Scheme 10.6. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 10.6.1. Vertical Mixing in ROMS 10.6.1.1. Philander and Pacanowski – PPMIX 10.6.1.2. K-Profile Parameterization – LMD94 10.6.1.3. Generic Length Scale 10.7. MITGCM 10.8. HYCOM 10.9. MIT – MSEAS 10.10. MOM6 Chapter 11: Simulation and Prediction 11.1. Context of Simulation and Prediction 11.2. Grid and Model Setup 11.3. Model Initialization 11.3.1. Climatology 11.3.2. Observations for Modeling Systems 11.3.2.1. In situ Observations 11.3.2.2. Buoys 11.3.2.3. Global Arrays 11.3.2.4. Regional Arrays 11.3.2.5. ARGO Floats 11.3.2.6. Drifters 11.3.2.7. Survey Data 11.3.2.8. Satellite Observations 11.3.2.9. New Observational Platforms 11.3.3. Forcing Fields and Reanalyses 11.4. Optimal Interpolation 11.4.1. The Correction Method 11.4.2. Kriging 11.4.3. Objective Analysis 11.5. Data Assimilation 11.6. Example Simulations 11.6.1. The North Atlantic Simulation 11.6.2. A Bay of Bengal Simulation 11.6.3. Brazil Current Genesis region 11.7. Prediction 11.8. IOOS 11.9. Applications 11.9.1. Climate Change and Machine Learning 11.9.2. Technology and Society Chapter 12: Synoptic Ocean Modeling 12.1. The Synoptic Ocean 12.2. FORMS 12.3. FORMS – Western North Atlantic 12.3.1. GSMR – Deeper Regions 12.3.2. Feature Models – Gulf Stream and Rings 12.3.2.1. A Kinematic Synthesis 12.3.3. GOMGB – Coastal FORMS 12.3.3.1. Water-Mass Front FM 12.3.3.2. Shelf-Slope Front (and Upwelling) FM 12.3.3.3. Coastal Eddy and Gyre t/s Feature Models 12.3.4. Initialization with FORMS – WNA 12.3.5. A Forecasting System for WNA 12.4. Process Studies with FORMS 12.4.1. The Strait of Sicily 12.4.2. Brazil Current 12.5. A World of FORMS Chapter 13: Interdisciplinary Modeling 13.1. Introduction 13.2. The Basics 13.3. The Biogeochemical Cycles 13.4. Vertical Distribution of Dissolved Gases 13.5. Meridional Distribution of Dissolved Gases 13.6. Simple Biogeochemical Modeling 13.7. Biogeochemical Models – Two Examples 13.8. Biogeochemical Processes 13.8.1. Ocean Acidification 13.8.2. Denitrification 13.8.3. Harmful Algal Blooms 13.8.4. Hypoxia 13.9. Modeling Fish – Stocks and Recruits 13.9.1. Stock–Recruitment Relationship Chapter 14: Modeling of the Climate System 14.1. Atmospheric Modeling 14.2. Temperature and CO2 14.3. Climate System Models 14.4. Scenario Modeling 14.5. Climate Projection, Downscaling, and Governance

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