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In this compilation, the authors examine a plant dealing with mussel shell waste as input in its valorisation process, which is considered a priori an eco-friendly solution to the disposal of these products. Conversely, as a result of the thermal treatment of the shell waste, odour emissions to the atmosphere are a significant issue. Therefore, the authors seek to identify pollution sources and solutions. Following this, the book reports on different methodologies for the identification of emerging metals pollutants, together with all toxic metals, in mussels, clams and oysters. The possibility of human consumption, among other things, makes this identification necessary prior to their being sold in the market. In a separate study, the authors analysed oxidative stress in relation to the impact of global climate change on bivalves through the study of the organisms responses to mitigate damage and control the generation of reactive oxygen species. Through this, the book expands our understanding of multifactorial effects on the marine ecosystem, providing insight into the acclimation, adaptive and stress response processes of bivalves. In order to compare oxidative stress conditions in bivalves obtained from both sites, the authors also evaluated the production of ROS and oxidative stress biomarkers in hemocytes from the A. atra atra during the month of September of 2015. Based on the results, it can be concluded that hemocytes from the ribbed mussel A. atra atra may be used as a model to evaluate oxidative stress induced by pollutants or other environmental stressors. Later, the level of lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic antioxidants content in Mytilus edulis chilensis for commercialization is evaluated, after the treatment with ascorbic acid. The results showed the generation of oxidative stress in mussels during dry condition. In the concluding chapter, the role of several mussel species in environmental monitoring programs, with emphasis on metal contamination, including metal bioaccumulation potential and biomarker investigations. Additonally, the fact that these organisms may be an important contaminant transfer link to the human population and pose important public health risks will also be discussed.
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Chapter 1 Mussel Shells’ Thermal Valorisation and Odour Emissions Abstract 1. Introduction 1.1. Odour Management 2. Case Study 3. Methodology 3.1. Greening the Process 3.2. Olfactometric Analysis 3.2.1. Qualitative Analysis 3.2.2. Quantitative Analysis 3.2.3. Immission Analysis 3.3. Results 3.3.1. Detection of Improvable Flows 3.3.2. Identification of Solutions 126.96.36.199. Reception and Storage of Raw Materials 188.8.131.52. Thermal Treatment 184.108.40.206. Final Product Management 220.127.116.11. Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) Conclusion References Chapter 2 Determination of Emerging Metal Pollutants and Toxic Metals in Mussels and Bivalve Mollusks, Very Important Food and Environmental Bio-Monitoring Species Abstract Experimental Reagents, Reference Solutions, and Standard Reference Materials Sampling Area and Sampling Sites Sample Preparation before the Instrumental Determination Voltammetric Procedure Spectroscopic Procedure Limits of Detection Metals of Interest Copper, Lead, Cadmium and Zinc Mercury Arsenic and Selenium Tin and Antimony Nickel and Cobalt Chromium Bismuth Vanadium Platinum Group Metals (PGMs) Determination of PGMs, Part I: Pt(II), Pd(II) and Rh(III) Determination of PGMs, Part II: Os(VIII), Ru(III) and Ir(III) Thallium Analytical Procedure for the Voltammetric Determination of Tl(I) Results and Discussion Limits of Detection and Linear Range Quality Control and Quality Assessment Practical Application Bio-Remediation Conflict of Interests References Chapter 3 Biomarker Responses in Bivalves Affected by Environmental Stressors Associated with the Global Climate Change Abstract Introduction Acidification Seasonality Temperature Salinity Oxygen Partial Pressure (pO2) Biotoxins Conclusion Acknowledgments References Biographical Sketches Chapter 4 Hemocytes of the Ribbed Mussel Aulacomya atra atra from Nuevo Gulf (Chubut) as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress Abstract Introduction Objective Materials and Methods Zones Selected Animal Collection Flow Cytometry Studies Superoxide Anion Production DCFH-DA Oxidation Rate Content of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) Quantification of Lipid Radicals by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)-Spin Trapping Cardiolipin Content Statistical Analyses Results Discussion Acknowledgments References Biographical Sketches Chapter 5 The Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Lipid Oxidation during the Processing of Mytilus edulis chilensis in the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego) Abstract Introduction Materials and Methods Experimental Design Physico-Chemical Determination in the Sampling Area TBARS Content Lipid Soluble Antioxidants Content AscorbylRadical Content (A•) AscorbateContent (AH-) Statistical Analyses Results Discussion Acknowledgments References Chapter 6 Mussels as Sentinel Organisms in Metal and Metalloid Contamination Scenarios: Environmental and Public Health Risk Bioindicators Abstract 1. Introduction 2. Metal and Metalloid Toxicity 3. Mussels as Bioindicators Concerning Environmental Metal and Metalloid Contamination 4. Subcellular and Molecular Effects of Metal and Metalloid Exposure: Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Stress 5. Mussel Biomarker Responses against Metal - and Metalloid-Induced Oxidative Stress 6. Mussel Responses to Nanoparticle Exposure 7. Necessary Considerations When Applying Mussels as Bioindicators for Metal and Metalloid Exposure in Aquatic Ecosystems 8. Mussels and Public Health
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